Information Retrieval Design, a book by James D. Anderson and Jose Perez-Carballo
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Chapter 12. Syntax

Contents of Chapter 12

12.1. Precoordinate and Postcoordinate Syntax.
12.2. Precoordinate Syntax for Displayed Indexes.
12.2.1. Subject Heading Syntax: Library of Congress subject headings (LCSH).
12.2.1.1. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH).
12.2.1.2. Principles for Subject Heading Systems.
12.2.2. String Syntax.
12.2.2.1. Rotated Term Syntax.
12.2.2.2. Faceted Syntax (PRECIS, CIFT).
12.2.2.2.1. Converting LCSH to Faceted Syntax.
12.2.2.3. Ad Hoc String Syntax (NEPHIS)
12.2.3. Relational Syntax.
12.2.3.1. Syntagmatic Relationships.
12.2.4. Classification Syntax.
12.2.4.1. Chain Syntax.
12.2.5. Natural Language Syntax.
12.2.5.1. KWIC Syntax.
12.2.5.2. KWOC Syntax.
12.2.5.3. KWAC Syntax.
12.2.6. Permuted Syntax.
12.2.7. Ad Hoc Syntax.
12.2.7.1. Combining Ad Hoc Syntax with Systematic Syntax.
12.2.8. Syntactic Cross References.
12.3. Postcoordinate Syntax for Non-Displayed Indexes.
12.3.1. Exact Match (Boolean) Syntax.
12.3.2. Best Match (Weighted Term) Syntax.
12.4. Our Examples.
12.4.1. A Book Index.
12.4.2. An Indexing and Abstracting Service.
12.4.3. A Full-Text Encyclopedia/Digital Library.


1 definition of syntax; syntax in index headings compared to search statements

2 role of syntax in indexing

3 impact of syntax on precision

4 example of impact of syntax on precision

5 syntax as essential attribute of indexes

6 syntax in index headings compared to search statements

12.1. Precoordinate and Postcoordinate Syntax.

7 purpose of index headings and search statements

8 precoordinate index headings

9 postcoordinate search statements

10 differences between displayed indexes and non-displayed indexes

11 views of Svenonius (Elaine) on precoordination versus postcoordination

12 criteria for indexing languages

12.2. Precoordinate Syntax for Displayed Indexes.

13

14 views of Craven (Timothy) on purpose of precoordinate syntax

15 criteria for precoordinate indexing languages

12.2.1. Subject Heading Syntax: Library of Congress subject headings.

16 development of subject headings in 19th century

17 subject headings in the United States

18 Library of Congress subject headings

19 types of subject headings in Library of Congress subject headings

20 syntax of Library of Congress subject headings

21 history of syntax in Library of Congress subject headings

22 main headings in Library of Congress subject headings

23 combination of entities and actions in Library of Congress subject headings

24

25 subdivision practice in Library of Congress subject headings

26 form subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings

27

28

29

30 geographic subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings

31

32

33

34 chronological subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings

35

36 topical subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings

37 subdivision by place versus topic in Library of Congress subject headings

38 syndetic structure in Library of Congress subject headings ; definition of syndetic structure

39

40 equivalent term cross references in Library of Congress subject headings

41 narrower term cross references in Library of Congress subject headings

42

43 broader term cross references in Library of Congress subject headings

44 related term cross references in Library of Congress subject headings

45 general cross references in Library of Congress subject headings

46

47

48

49 absence of cross references in library catalogs

50 syndetic structure as vocabulary management

51 modernization of Library of Congress subject headings

52 conference on future of subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings :
recommendations for improvement

53 arrangement of subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings

54

55 national authority file for Library of Congress subject headings

56


57 chronological subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings

58 categorization and display of subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings


59 geographic subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings

60 subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings

61 display of Library of Congress subject headings

62

63


64

65 views of Drabenstott and Vizine-Goetz on display of Library of Congress subject headings : decision trees

66 exact-match searches using Library of Congress subject headings

67

68

69

70 alphabetical browsing using Library of Congress subject headings

71

72


73

74


75 keyword searches using Library of Congress subject headings


76

77

78

79

80

81 search decision trees for Library of Congress subject headings

82 views of American Library Association on display of Library of Congress subject headings

83

84 comprehensibility of Library of Congress subject headings

85


86

87

88

89

90 confusion between form versus topical subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings

91

92

93

94

95

96 professional and research literature on Library of Congress subject headings

97 Sear's list of subject headings

12.2.1.1. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH).

98

99

100

101 browsing versus searching using Medical subject headings

12.2.1.2. Principles for Subject Heading Systems.

102

103 principles regarding construction of subject heading systems

Construction Principles

104 principles regarding uniform headings in subject heading systems

1. Uniform Heading Principle (Terminology Control and Predictability of Representation): "To facilitate synonym control and to collocate subjects in the display of bibliographic records, each concept or named entity that is indexed by a subject heading language should be represented by one authorized heading" (Beall, p. 292).

105 principles regarding synonymy in subject heading systems

2. Synonymy Principle: "To collocate all material on a given subject and to increase the recall power of a subject heading language, synonymy should be controlled in the subject heading language" (Beall, p. 292).

106 principles regarding homonymy in subject heading systems

3. Homonymy Principle: "To prevent the retrieval of irrelevant materials and to increase the precision power of a subject heading language, homonymy should be controlled in the subject heading language" (Beall, p. 292).

107 principles regarding semantics in subject heading systems

4. Semantic Principle: "To express the semantic (paradigmatic) structure of a subject heading language, subject headings should be linked by equivalence, hierarchical and coordinate relationships" (Beall, p. 294). (Less agreement on this principle — Cochrane, p. 186).

108 principles regarding syntax in subject heading systems

5. Syntax Principle: "To express complex and compound subjects, the syntax of a subject heading language should link the compound parts of a subject heading by syntagmatic relationships rather than semantic (paradigmatic) ones" (Beall, p. 295). (This principle had the least agreement — Cochrane, p. 186).

109 principles regarding consistency in subject heading systems

6. Consistency Principle: "To achieve and maintain consistency, each new subject heading admitted into a subject heading language should be similar in form and structure to comparable headings already in the language" (Beall, p. 293).

110 principles regarding naming in subject heading systems

7. Naming Principle: "To facilitate integrated retrieval, names of persons, places, families, corporate bodies and works when used in a subject heading language of a given catalogue, bibliography or index should be established according to the rules used for author and title entries in that catalog, bibliography or index" (Beall, p. 293-294).

111 principles regarding literary warrant in subject heading systems

8. Literary Warrant Principle (A Posteriori Principle): "To reflect the subject content of documents, the vocabulary of a subject heading language is [i.e. should be] developed dynamically, based on literary warrant, and integrated systematically with existing vocabulary" (Beall, p. 297).

112 principles regarding user needs in subject heading systems

9. User Principle: "To meet users' needs, the vocabulary of subject headings in a subject heading language should be chosen to reflect the current usage of the target audience for the subject heading language, whatever that might be, for example the general public or users of a specific type of library" (Beall, p. 296).

113 principles regarding application of subject heading systems

Application Principles

114 principles regarding subject indexing policy for subject heading systems

10. Subject Indexing Policy Principle: "To meet user needs and give consistent treatment to documents, indexing policies giving guidance for subject analysis and representation should be developed" (Cochrane, p. 187 — not included in Beall).

115 principles regarding specific and coextensive subject headings in subject heading systems

11. Specific Heading Principle (Specificity Principle): "To increase the precision power of a subject heading language, a subject heading [or a set of subject headings] should be coextensive with the subject content to which it applies" (Beall, p. 297, Cochrane, p. 187).

116 future of subject headings

117

12.2.2. String Syntax.

118 definition of string syntax

119

120 principles regarding specific and coextensive index headings in string syntax

121

12.2.2.1. Rotated Term Syntax.

122 definition of rotated term syntax

123 examples of rotated term syntax


124 dates (time) in rotated term syntax

125 locators in rotated term syntax

126 rotated term syntax in America: history and life

127 string syntax compared to subject heading syntax; coextensive index headings in string syntax

128 coextensive index headings and eliminability in string syntax

129 clarity of rotated string syntax

Figure 12.1. Index entries from America: history and life. (Reprinted by permission of ABC-CLIO, (c) 1996)

12.2.2.2. Faceted Syntax (PRECIS, CIFT).

130 definition of faceted syntax

131 examples of faceted syntax


132 faceted syntax compared to rotated term syntax

133 PRECIS as example of faceted syntax

134 role and facet indicators in faceted syntax

135 role definers in faceted syntax

136 display of faceted index headings

137

138

139 faceted syntax in specialized domains

140 examples of faceted index headings from MLA international bibliography

141

142

143

144 role definers in faceted syntax

145 faceted syntax compared to rotated term syntax

Figure 12.2. Index entries from the MLA international bibliography. (Reprinted by permission of the Modern Language Association of America, (c) 1998)


146

147 clarity of index headings

148 collocation of index headings

149 collocation in rotated term syntax

150

151

152

153

154

155 collocation in faceted syntax

156 predictability of index headings

12.2.2.2.1. Converting LCSH to Faceted Syntax.

157 views of Chan (Lois Mai) on faceted syntax for Library of Congress subject headings

158 facets of Bliss classification applied to Library of Congress subject headings

159 facets for features of documentary units

160 coextensive index headings using faceted syntax for Library of Congress subject headings

161 examples of faceted syntax for Library of Congress subject headings

162

163

164 categorization of multiple index headings using facets

165

166

167

168 testing of faceted syntax for Library of Congress subject headings

12.2.2.3. Ad Hoc String Syntax (NEPHIS).

169 definition of ad hoc string syntax

170 ad hoc string syntax compared to faceted syntax

171 ad hoc string syntax compared to natural language syntax

172 NEPHIS as example of ad hoc string syntax

173 notation in NEPHIS

174 examples of NEPHIS coding

175 examples of NEPHIS index headings

176 explanation of NEPHIS syntax algorithm






177 use of NEPHIS for book indexes

178

179

180

181

182


183 objectives of string syntax

184 impact of syntax on size of indexes

12.2.3. Relational Syntax.

185 views of Farradane (Jason) on relational indexing

186 relational indicators in relational syntax

187 notation for relational syntax


188 use of relational syntax

189 display of relational syntax

12.2.3.1. Syntagmatic Relationships.

190 definition of syntagmatic relationships

191 syntagmatic relationships and thematic roles

192 frame-based structures in indexing

12.2.4. Classification Syntax.

193 classified displays versus alphabetical displays

194 classified displays on the world-wide web; classification systems for searching

195 display of classification systems in hypertext

196 classification captions versus index headings

197 syntax in Dewey decimal classification

198

199

200 analytico-synthetic classification syntax

201 syntax in Library of Congress classification

202 syntax in faceted classifications

203 syntax in MLA international bibliography classification

204

205 arrangement of indexes versus classifications

206

207

208 classified arrangements of index headings within facets

209 hierarchical arrangement in classification

210

211 facet arrangement in MLA international bibliography classification

212 role of notation in classification systems

213

214

215 syntax and facet indicators in Universal decimal classification

216 examples of notation in Universal decimal classification

notational symbols in Universal decimal classification compared to relational syntax : 217

12.2.4.1. Chain Syntax.

218 definition of chain syntax

219 alphabetical indexes for classified arrangements

220 creation of chain indexes from classified arrangements

221 examples of chain indexes

222

223

224

12.2.5. Natural Language Syntax.

225 natural language text as source for index headings

226 document titles as basis for index headings

227 effectiveness of natural language syntax

228 natural language syntax in digital libraries

229 effectiveness of natural language syntax

230 criteria for evaluation of natural language syntax

231 adequacy of titles as indexable matter

232 adequacy of collocation in natural language syntax

233 natural language syntax in keyword indexes

12.2.5.1. KWIC Indexes.

234 definition and example of KWIC indexes

235 evaluation of KWIC index syntax

236 collocation in KWIC indexes

237

238 format of KWIC indexes

12.2.5.2. KWOC Indexes.

239 definition and example of KWOC indexes

240 word pairs and phrases in KWOC indexes

12.2.5.3. KWAC Indexes.

241 definition and example of KWAC indexes

242 word pairs and phrases in KWAC indexes

12.2.6. Permuted Syntax.

243 word pairs in natural language syntax

244

245 definition of permuted syntax

246 permuted syntax versus natural language syntax

247 multi-word phrases in permuted syntax

248 example of permuted syntax

249

250 nonsensical index headings in permuted indexes

12.2.7. Ad Hoc Syntax.

251 definition of ad hoc syntax

252 examples of ad hoc syntax

253 characteristics of ad hoc syntax

254 elements of ad hoc syntax

255 guidelines for ad hoc syntax: prepositions in ad hoc syntax

256

257 cross references in ad hoc syntax

258 placement of cross references in ad hoc syntax

259

260 explanatory cross references

261 scope notes in displayed indexes

12.2.7.1. Combining Ad Hoc Syntax with Systematic Syntax.

262 examples of ad hoc and systematic syntax in Psychological abstracts

263 combinations of systematic syntax and citations

264 examples of placement of cross references

Figure 12.3. Index entries from Psychological abstracts. (Reprinted by permission of the American Psychological Association, (c) 1996.)

Figure 12.4. Index entries from Readers' guide to periodical literature. (Reprinted by permission of the H. W. Wilson Company, (c) 1995.)

12.2.8. Syntactic Cross References.

265 necessity for syntactic cross references

266 examples of syntactic cross references

267

268 definitions of syntactic cross references

12.3. Postcoordinate Syntax for Non-Displayed Indexes.

269 precoordinate syntax versus postcoordinate syntax

270 characteristics of non-displayed indexes

271 use of inverted files for non-displayed indexes

272 definition of inverted files

273 definition of postcoordinate syntax

274 postcoordinate syntax used with precoordinate syntax

275 links in postcoordinate syntax

276 vocabulary lists versus non-displayed indexes

277

278 absence of syntax in vocabulary lists

279 definition of non-displayed indexes

Figure 12.5. Comparison of key attributes of displayed and non-displayed documentary unit indexes versus simple vocabulary lists. The major components are based on the NISO Guidelines for indexes and related information retrieval devices (Anderson 1997a, p. 8).

280 major types of syntax for non-displayed indexes: exact match and best match syntax

12.3.1. Exact Match (Boolean) Syntax.

281 definition of exact match syntax

282 history of exact match syntax

283

284 syntactic operators in exact match syntax

285 examples of exact match syntax

286 impact of exact match syntax

287 absence of ranking in exact match syntax

288 methods for arrangement of retrieved documentary units

289 narrowing of searches with exact match syntax

290

291 disadvantages of exact match syntax

292 meaning of syntactic operators in exact match syntax

293

294

295

296 alternative options for syntax for non-displayed indexes

12.3.2. Best Match (Weighted Term) Syntax.

297 definition of best match syntax; vector space and probabilistic models

298 language model for best match syntax

299

300 ranking in best match syntax

301 examples of best match syntax

302

303

304

305

306

307

308

309

310

311

312 automatic methods for term weighting

12.4. Our Examples.

12.4.1. A Book Index.

313 ad hoc string syntax for book indexes

314 documentary units and locators for book indexes

315 pages versus paragraphs as documentary units

316 examples of index statements for ad hoc string syntax

317 examples of index headings based on ad hoc string syntax

318 examples of index headings based on ad hoc string syntax

319 display of book indexes in electronic media

320 syntax for full-text searching of books in electronic media

12.4.2. An Indexing and Abstracting Service.

321

322 comprehensive searches in indexing and abstracting services in electronic media

323 user-defined stop lists

324 user options for automatic stemming

325 use of truncation

326 use of proximity requirements

327 targeted searches

328 use of clustering

329 comprehensive searches based on automatic indexing in print media

330 examples of KWIC indexes in print media

331 selective searches in indexing and abstracting services

332 faceted syntax in indexing and abstracting services

333 indexing worksheet for faceted syntax in indexing and abstracting services

334 examples of faceted syntax in indexing and abstracting services

335 generation of faceted index headings for indexing and abstracting services

336 format for faceted index headings in indexing and abstracting services

337 display of faceted index headings in indexing and abstracting services

338 purpose of displayed indexes in indexing and abstracting services

12.4.3. A Full-Text Encyclopedia/Digital Library.

339

340 search options for electronic encyclopedias and digital libraries

341 hypertext links in electronic encyclopedias and digital libraries

342 user suggested cross-references

343


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